As an example, let's take
a look at Chapter 21, page 714 of the Prentice Hall Earth Explorer's
Earth Science textbook (after that I also show an example of
outlining a website so keep reading). If we remember to make
all the big, blue headings Roman Numerals, the Green subheadings
the Letters, and the black paragraphs with purple headings the
numbers, then here is what it will look like:
- Tools of Modern Astronomy
- Electromagnetic Radiation
- Patterns in the sky are called constellations.
Stars in constellations form shapes that we give names
and patterns to.
- Types of Electromagnetic Radiation
- The light we see is called visible
light and light is a form of electromagnetic
radiation. That is energy that can travel through
space in the form of waves.
- Many objects other than light
also give off radiation.
- The Electromagnetic Spectrum
- The distance between the crest
of one wave and the crest of another wave is
called wavelength. Visible light has short wavelengths,
but some electromagnetic waves have even shorter
wavelengths and some have longer wavelengths.
- Shining white light through a
prism shows the spread of all the colors that
is called a spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum
includes radio waves, infrared, visible light,
ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays.
- "Most telescopes collect and focus
different types of electromagnetic radiation, including
visible light." (p. 716)
- Visible Light Telescopes
- Refracting telescopes uses convex
lenses. Convex lenses are curved in the middle
so the middle is thicker.
- Radio Telescopes
- Radio telescopes detect radio
waves from objects in space. They have curved,
reflecting surfaces which focus radio waves the
way a mirror in a reflecting telescope focuses
- Other Telescopes
- There are telescopes that detect
infrared radiation, ultraviolet, X-rays, and
- Observatories contain one or more telescopes.
- Placing telescopes on satellites because
the earth's atmosphere blocks much of the radiation
used by telescopes. The Hubble Space Telescope is an
- "A spectrograph breaks the light
from an object into colors and photographs the resulting
spectrum." "Astronomers use Spectrographs
to get information about starts, including their chemical
compositions and temperatures." (p. 719)
- Chemical Compositions
- Since elements absorb light at
different wavelengths, the placements of those
lines on the spectrum acts like a fingerprint
for elements. That is how astronomers can tell
what elements certain stars are composed of.
- Most stars have similar chemical
compositions but their temperatures differ. Because
of this, their spectrums are different depending
on the temperature.
- Characteristics of Stars
- Distance to Stars
- I'll summarize
galaxy and universe here, from page 723, as well
as the info under Distance to Stars. Then I will
proceed exactly like I did above for the section.
Section 3 will be Roman Numeral III and so on.
- This is
how an outline looks for notes.
To outline a website takes
a little more creativity because websites are not always as neatly separated
as textbooks. As an example, let's take the following webpage on identifying
rocks. The roman numeral, usually just one, will be the title of
the page. It's up to you whether you want to make a second page number
two or start over with one. Where there are no subheadings, I just title
the paragraph before I begin summarizing it.
- Identifying Rocks
- Minerals in rocks provide one clue
to the type of rock it is. Other clues are needed to
identify the rock.
- Identifying Igneous
- The position of the minerals is important.
In igneous rocks, the minerals are arranged like a
- The specific minerals can also help
identify igneous rocks.
- The size of the minerals can also help
identify certain igneous rocks.
- Identifying Sedimentary
- Because sedimentary rocks are pieces
of sediments cemented together, the minerals do not
fit like a jigsaw puzzle.
- The biggest clue is if the rock has
fossils. Then it has to be sedimentary.
- Identifying Metamorphic
- In metamorphic rocks, the minerals
are arranged in bands and layers. That is from the
amazing heat and pressure.
- Metamorphic rocks will not have fossils.
- Main Ideas
- Minerals are important in identifying